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3 min read May 25, 2023

Net Operating Income (NOI): All You Need to Know

Net Operating Income (NOI) is a financial metric used to assess the profitability of an income-generating property or business. It represents the revenue generated from operations after deducting operating expenses, excluding taxes and interest.

NOI provides a clear picture of the property’s operational performance. Therefore, it helps real estate investors in assessing the property’s income-generating potential.

What is NOI in Real Estate?

NOI represents the income generated by a property after deducting all operating expenses, excluding taxes and interest. It serves as a significant financial measure that indicates the property’s profitability and overall financial performance.

NOI considers various factors like rental income, vacancies, and operational costs such as property management fees. It also includes maintenance expenses, utility bills, insurance, and property taxes.

How To Calculate Net Operating Income?

To calculate Net Operating Income (NOI) for a real estate property, follow these steps:

  • Step 1 – Determine The Property’s Total Potential Rental Income: Calculate the total potential rental income by multiplying the property’s rental rate by the total number of rentable units or square footage.
  • Step 2 – Subtract Vacancy and Credit Loss: Deduct any expected vacancy and credit loss from the total potential rental income. Afterward, multiply the vacancy rate by the total potential rental income to determine the amount.
  • Step 3 – Add Other Income: Include any additional income sources related to the property, such as parking fees, laundry income, or storage rental fees.
  • Step 4 – Subtract Operating Expenses: Deduct all operating expenses associated with the property. This typically includes property management fees, maintenance and repairs, property taxes, insurance, utilities, and any other recurring expenses.
  • Step 5 – Calculate the Net Operating Income: Subtract the total operating expenses from the adjusted rental income (potential rental income minus vacancy and credit loss plus other income).

Net Operating Income Formula

NOI = Gross Operating Income – Operating Expenses

Therefore, the resulting figure represents the property’s Net Operating Income.

Does Net Operating Income (NOI) Include Debt Service

No, Net Operating Income (NOI) does not include debt service. It represents the income generated by a property after deducting all operating expenses, excluding taxes and interest.

Debt service, on the other hand, refers to the principal and interest payments made on any loans or mortgages associated with the property.

While NOI provides a measure of the property’s operational profitability, debt service is a separate financial obligation that reflects the costs associated with financing the property.

Including debt service in NOI would distort the metric’s accuracy in assessing the property’s operational performance. Therefore, when calculating NOI, debt service is not considered an operating expense.

Bottom Line

In conclusion, Net Operating Income is a crucial financial metric in real estate. It provides valuable insights into a property’s profitability, financial performance, and income-generating potential.

By calculating and analyzing NOI, stakeholders can assess the property’s cash flow, determine its value, and gauge its ability to generate returns.

Overall, NOI serves as a vital tool for assessing the operational strength and financial viability of real estate assets.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to find net operating income?

To find net operating income, subtract total operating expenses from the property's gross operating income.

Does net operating income include mortgage?

No, net operating income (NOI) does not include mortgage.

What is net rental income?

Net rental income is the amount of income generated from rental properties after deducting expenses such as property management fees, maintenance costs, and property taxes.


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